Theme: Health and Wellbeing

Sub themes:  
1) Social & Mental Wellbeing
2) Safety
3) Comfort 
4) Pollution
 

Sub theme: Social & Mental Wellbeing 

Offer spaces, services, and activities where the promotion and development of human vitality and wellbeing is materialised. As social and mental wellbeing are outcomes of good urban planning and design, there are several general and context-specific principles that can be considered and applied towards urban reconstruction efforts in post-crisis cities and neighborhoods for this purpose. 

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 3.4, SDG 9.4, SDG 12.8, SDG 11.7, SDG 12.8, SDG 11.7, SDG 2.1, SDG 11.A, SDG 4.7, SDG 16.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG 12.4, SDG 13.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 9.4, SDG 13.1)

  • Biophilic design principles
  • Happiness mapping and place making 
  • Equalise wellbeing 
  • Decentralise services
  • No honking zones 
  • Nature For mental and social wellbeing
  • Wellbeing for children
  • Wellbeing for the elderly
  • Social capital through activity  
  • Promotion of the arts

Alignment with WorldGBC principles:

Health & Wellbeing Framework: 1.3 Improve Mental Health, 2.5 Ensure Inclusive Design, 3.1 Ensure Biophilic Design, 3.2 Ensure Outdoor Nature access & Biodivesity, 4.1 Promote Activity & physical Health in design, 4.2 Encourage Good nutrition hydration & social connectivity, 5.1 protect human rights, 5.3 improve quality of life, 6.1 Commit to Climate Change mitigation, 6.2 Design for Resilience and adaptation action.

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Local government agencies
  • Municipalities
  • Civil society representatives
  • Subject matter experts

Sub theme: Safety

Provide integrated safety and disaster risk mitigation/prevention planning and management measures over the life cycle of the reconstruction process of cities whilst maintaining the wellbeing of all stakeholders. Explore effective measures which priorities safety for all stakeholders at all development levels, in the context of a health pandemic.

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 9.4, SDG 4.7, SDG 16.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG 3.3, SDG 13.1, SDG 8.7-8.8)

  • Handle Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance
  • Prioritise safe public spaces and accessibility
  • Plan for disaster risk reduction
  • Promote public health and safety
  • Check for construction / structural soundness
  • Plan for construction process safety

Alignment with WorldGBC principles:

Health & Wellbeing Framework: 2.5 Ensure Inclusive Design, 5.1 protect human rights, 5.3 improve quality of life, 1.4 Reduce infection Disease Transmission, 2.5 Ensure Inclusive Design, 5.1 protect human rights, 5.3 improve quality of life, 6.2 Design for Resilience and adaptation action.

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Municipalities and local governments
  • Public works regulatory bodies, specifications and standardization regulatory bodies, H&S specialists, EIA specialists, material engineers, and contractors  
  • Structural engineers
  • Citizens and built environment users

Sub theme: Comfort 

Encourage occupant wellbeing by ensuring thermal, visual, auditory, and olfactory comfort.  Encourage beneficial lifestyle practices which include good nutrition, hydration, and social connectivity.

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 3 & 11, SDG 7.1, SDG9.1, SDG 9.4, SDG 12.4, SDG 13.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 13.1, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG  8.7-8.8, SDG 11.7, SDG 2.1, SDG 11.A, SDG 12.8)

  • Conduct a comfort review data gathering (quantitative and qualitative)
  • Perform comfort analysis
  • Utilise comfort related outcomes and recommendations
  • Plan for thermal comfort
  • Plan for proper lighting and visual comfort
  • Plan for acoustic comfort
  • Integrate urban biophilia
  • Empower community perception and ownership
  • Consider other outdoor environment quality

Alignment with WorldGBC principles:

Net Zero operational carbon

Health & Wellbeing Framework principles

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Local government agencies
  • Municipalities 
  • Civil society representatives
  • Subject matter experts

Sub theme: Pollution 

Approach pollution mitigation and prevention through a comprehensive, integrative, and multi-disciplinary design approach, and elaborate on the preservation of air, water and soil quality to minimise health risks. 

For optimum protection against harm which also encapsulates human wellbeing, the theme provides mitigation strategies for other sources of pollution such as noise and light.

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 3.9, SDG 11.6, SDG 1.5, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG 12.4, SDG 13.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 9.4, SDG 13.1, SDG 6.1 - 6.6, SDG 15.1 - 15.9, SDG 7.1, SDG 9.1, SDG 7.1)

  • Limit and mitigate air pollution
  • Limit and mitigate water pollution
  • Limit and mitigate soil pollution
  • Limit and mitigate noise pollution

Alignment with existing WorldGBC principles:

Health & Wellbeing Framework – 1.1 improve air quality, 1.2 improve water quality , 5.3 improve quality of life, 6.1 Commit to Climate Change mitigation, 6.2 Design for Resilience and adaptation action,2.2 Maintain Exemplary Lighting, 2.3 Maintain Acoustic comfort, 5.3 improve quality of life.

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Each design discipline
  • Scientists and researchers 
  • Client 
  • Community 
  • Cost/Financial controller 
  • Local heritage advisor 
  • Operation and facility manager 
  • Contractor and construction manager 
  • Government and local authorities  

Theme Tools:

  • Estidama Pearl Rating System 2010: Livable Communities LC-12: Safe and Secure Community
  • CASBEE Urban Development 2007: QUD 2.4.4: Crime Prevention Performance (Surveillance and Territoriality)
  • The Northern Territory Government Community Safety Design Guideline
  • IBC and ICC requirements
  • Regulate safety audit procedures and guidelines, and conduct them on a regular basis, especially for road segments that have a past record of accidents
  • Envision Standard 
  • FEAM 
  • UNISDR BBB 
  • WELL Health and Safety Standard. 2021.
  • Estidama Pearl Rating System for Community and Buildings 
  • WorldGBC Health & Well Being Framework 
  • Existing local Standards & Regulations 
  • WELL Building Standard 
  • Fitwel  
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standard 
  • Existing Standards & Regulations 
  • WELL Community Standard 
  • IES/ASHRAE 90.1-2013 
  • IES-ANSI RP-8-14 
  • BS 5489-1:2013 
  • IES RP-33-14 - classifying lighting zones 
  • IES Lighting Handbook 10th Edition 
  • EN 12464-2:2014  
  • EPA. A Citizen's Guide to Bioremediation:  https://www.epa.gov/remedytech/citizens-guide-bioremediation 
  • World Health Organization. 2005.  Air quality guidelines. Global update 2005. Particular matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
  •  World Health Organization. 2017. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. 
  •  WHO Health Organization. 2018. Guidelines on sanitation and health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. 
  •  Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and International Dark Sky Association (IDA). 2011.  Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) User Guide for information on determining the project’s lighting zone.
  • LEED v4 Building Design and Construction 
  • World Green Building Council. 2020. ‘Health and Wellbeing Framework’ 

 

References

Sub theme: Social & Mental Wellbeing 

Astell-Burt, T., Feng, X., & Kolt, G. S. 2013. Does access to neighborhood green space promote a healthy duration of sleep? Novel findings from a cross-sectional study of 259 319 Australians. BMJ Open, 3, e003094.

Beatley, T. 2016. Handbook of biophilic city planning and design. Springer. 

Blackmore, R., Gray, K. M., Boyle, J. A., Fazel, M., Ranasinha, S., Fitzgerald, G., Misso, M., & Gibson-Helm, M. 2020. Systematic review and meta-analysis: The prevalence of mental illness in child and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(6), 705–714.

Mykletun, A., Bjerkeset, O., Øverland, S., Prince, M., Dewey, M., & Stewart, R. 2009. Levels of anxiety and depression as predictors of mortality: The HUNT study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(2), 118-125.

Mytton, O. T., Townsend, N., Rutter, H., & Foster, C. 2012. Green space and physical activity: An observational study using Health Survey for England data. Health Place, 18(5), 1034-1041.  

Peen, J., Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. T., & Dekker, J. 2010. The current status of urban-rural differences in psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatria Scandinavia, 121(2), 84–93.

Powdthavee, N. 2008. Putting a price tag on friends, relatives, and neighbors: Using surveys of life satisfaction to value social relationships. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(4), 1459-1480.

Rashid, T., & Baddar, M. K. A.-H. 2019. Positive psychotherapy: Clinical and cross-cultural applications of positive psychology. In L. Lambert & N. Pasha-Zaidi (Eds.), Positive psychology in the Middle East/North Africa: Research, policy, and practise (pp. 333–362). Springer. 

Roe, J., & Aspinall, P. 2011. The restorative outcomes of forest school and conventional school in young people with good and poor behavior. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 10(3), 205-212.

Roe, J., Aspinall, P., & Ward Thompson, C. 2017. Coping with stress in deprived urban neighborhoods: What is the role of green space according to life stage? Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1760. 

Schwanen, T., & Wang, D. 2014. Well-being, context, and everyday activities in space and time. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(4), 833–851.

Taylor, M. S., Wheeler, B. W., White, M. P., Economou, T., & Osborne, N. J. 2015. Research note: Urban street tree density and antidepressant prescription rates - A cross-sectional study in London, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 136, 174-179. 

Troy, A., Grove, J. M., & O’Neil-Dunne, J. 2012. The relationship between tree canopy and crime rates across an urban–rural gradient in the greater Baltimore region. Landscape and Urban Planning, 106(3), 262-270.

Umberson, D., & Montez, J. K. 2010. Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl), S54–S66.

Veronese, G., Pepe, A., Cavazzoni, F., Obaid, H., & Perez, J. 2019. Agency via life satisfaction as a protective factor from cumulative trauma and emotional distress among Bedouin children in Palestine. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1674.

Veronese, G., Pepe, A., Sala, G., Yamien, I., & Vigliaroni, M. 2019. Positive experience, psychological functioning, and hope for the future as factors associated with mental health among young Sub-Saharan internally displaced people (IDP): A quantitative pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health, 48(3), 165–187.

Villeneuve, P. J., Jerrett, M., Su, J. G., Burnett, R. T., Chen, H., Wheeler, A. J., & Goldberg, M. S. 2012. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada. Environmental Research, 115, 51–58.

Walther, L., Amann, J., Flick, U., Tam Ta, T. M., Bajbouj, M., & Hahn, E. 2021. A qualitative study on resilience in adult refugees in Germany. BMC Public Health, 21, 828.

Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. 2009. Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1315-1329.

Zelenski, J. M., Dopko, R. L., & Capaldi, C. A. 2015. Cooperation is in our nature: Nature exposure may promote cooperative and environmentally sustainable behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 24-31

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 by UNDRR outlines seven clear targets and four priority areas for actions that can prevent new disaster risks and reduce existing risks

Sub theme: Safety 

Envision Rating System.(n.d.). American Society of Civil Engineers ( ASCE). https://www.asce.org/envision/ 

UNDDR. (2015). The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. UNDDR

UNISDR. (2017). Build Back Better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. UNISDR 

WELL Health and Safety Standard. 2021. International WELL Building Institute

Sub theme: Comfort 

BCO. 2018. ‘BCO Wellness Matters’. http://www.bco.org.uk/HealthWellbeing/WellnessMatters.aspx 

European Commission. 2019. ‘Health Effects of Noise’. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/health_effects_en.htm  

European Commission. 2020. ‘Environmental Noise’. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/index_en.htm 

GSAS Construction Management Guidelines and assessment. 2016 V2.1-issue 2.0. 

USGBC. (n.d.). Neighborhood Development Plan. https://www.usgbc.org/credits?Version=%22v4%22&Rating+System=%22Neighbor...

Laaidi, K.,et al. 2013. ‘Cold spells and health: prevention and warning’. Public health, Vol. 127(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.02.011 

USGBC. (n.d.). LEED Communities. https://www.usgbc.org/credits?Version=%22v4.1%22&Rating+System=%22Cities...

Meng, X.W: & Setoguchi, T. 2010. Development of Urban Design Guidelines with Wind Tunnel Simulations for Downtown Districts in Winter Cities - New Urban Design Approaches for Cold Region Cities. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, Vol 9(2). DOI: 10.3130/jaabe.9.355 

Public space site-specific assessment Guidelines to achieve quality public spaces at neighborhood level, UNHABITAT For Better Urban Future. https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020/07/final_pssa_v.1_reviewe... pressed.pdf 

USGBC, LEED v4.1 Cities and Communities: Planning and Design, April 10, 2020 

Public space site-specific assessment Guidelines to achieve quality public spaces at neighborhood level, UNHABITAT For Better Urban Future. https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020/07/final_pssa_v.1_reviewed_compressed.pdf 

Renner, R. 2018. Urban Being: Anatomy & Identity of the City. Niggli Verlag. 

Lydon, M., & Garcia, A. (2015). Tactical Urbanism: Short-term Action for Long-term Change. 

UN Habitat. (2012). The Global Public Space Program. www.unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2019/05/global_public_space_toolkit.pdf 

EPA. (n.d.). Heat Island Cooling Strategies. https://www.epa.gov/heatislands/heat-island-cooling-strategies. 

WELL. (n.d.). Thermal Comfort. WELL Communities. https://v2.wellcertified.com/community/en/thermal%20comfort# 

WELL. (n.d.).

Thermal Comfort. WELL Communities.https://v2.wellcertified.com/community/en 

Mikyoung Kim Design. (2009). Chapel Hill Streetscape and Lighting Master Plan, ‘Design Manual: Sustainable-Initiatives’.https://townhall.townofchapelhill.org/agendas/2009/06/15/1/master_plan/pages_from_mykd_chapelhill_masterplan_section11.pdf 

World Green Building Council. 2020. 'Health and Wellbeing framework'. https://worldgbc.org/health-framework 

Sub theme: Pollution

Everything Connects. ‘Noise Pollution’. https://www.everythingconnects.org/noise-pollution.html  

Hurley, et al. 2014. ‘Light at night and breast cancer risk among california teachers’. Epidemiology, Vol 25(5). Doi:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000137 

Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and International Dark Sky Association (IDA). 2011.  Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) User Guide for information on determining the project’s lighting zone. https://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/ 

Legates, at el. 2014. ‘Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect’. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 15(7). Doi:10.1038/nrn3743 

UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2018. ‘Polluting our soils is polluting our future’. http://www.fao.org/fao-stories/article/en/c/1126974/ 

World Health Organization. 2006. ‘Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005’. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf?ua=1 

World Health Organization. 2013. https://www.who.int/health-topics/air-pollution#tab=tab_1 

World Health Organization: Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater -  Volume 1 (2013): https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241546824 

World Health Organization. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). https://www.who.int/health-topics/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash 

Everything Connects. (2013, 20 11). Noise Pollution. https://www.everythingconnects.org/noise-pollution.html 

Hurley, et al. 2014. ‘Light at night and breast cancer risk among california teachers’. Epidemiology, Vol 25(5). Doi:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000137 

Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and International Dark Sky Association (IDA). 2011.  Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) User Guide for information on determining the project’s lighting zone. https://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/ 
Legates, at el. 2014. ‘Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect’. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 15(7). Doi:10.1038/nrn3743 

UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2018. ‘Polluting our soils is polluting our future’. http://www.fao.org/fao-stories/article/en/c/1126974/ 

World Health Organization. 2006. ‘Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005’ https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf?ua=1 

World Health Organization. 2013. https://www.who.int/health-topics/air-pollution#tab=tab_1 

World Health Organization. (2013). Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater  (Vol. 1). https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241546824 

World Health Organization. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). https://www.who.int/health-topics/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash 

Sub themes:  
1) Social & Mental Wellbeing
2) Safety
3) Comfort 
4) Pollution
 

Sub theme: Social & Mental Wellbeing 

Offer spaces, services, and activities where the promotion and development of human vitality and wellbeing is materialised. As social and mental wellbeing are outcomes of good urban planning and design, there are several general and context-specific principles that can be considered and applied towards urban reconstruction efforts in post-crisis cities and neighborhoods for this purpose. 

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 3.4, SDG 9.4, SDG 12.8, SDG 11.7, SDG 12.8, SDG 11.7, SDG 2.1, SDG 11.A, SDG 4.7, SDG 16.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG 12.4, SDG 13.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 9.4, SDG 13.1)

  • Biophilic design principles
  • Happiness mapping and place making 
  • Equalise wellbeing 
  • Decentralise services
  • No honking zones 
  • Nature For mental and social wellbeing
  • Wellbeing for children
  • Wellbeing for the elderly
  • Social capital through activity  
  • Promotion of the arts

Alignment with WorldGBC principles:

Health & Wellbeing Framework: 1.3 Improve Mental Health, 2.5 Ensure Inclusive Design, 3.1 Ensure Biophilic Design, 3.2 Ensure Outdoor Nature access & Biodivesity, 4.1 Promote Activity & physical Health in design, 4.2 Encourage Good nutrition hydration & social connectivity, 5.1 protect human rights, 5.3 improve quality of life, 6.1 Commit to Climate Change mitigation, 6.2 Design for Resilience and adaptation action.

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Local government agencies

  • Municipalities

  • Civil society representatives

  • Subject matter experts

Sub theme: Safety

Provide integrated safety and disaster risk mitigation/prevention planning and management measures over the life cycle of the reconstruction process of cities whilst maintaining the wellbeing of all stakeholders. Explore effective measures which priorities safety for all stakeholders at all development levels, in the context of a health pandemic.

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 9.4, SDG 4.7, SDG 16.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG 3.3, SDG 13.1, SDG 8.7-8.8)

  • Handle Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) clearance
  • Prioritise safe public spaces and accessibility
  • Plan for disaster risk reduction
  • Promote public health and safety
  • Check for construction / structural soundness
  • Plan for construction process safety

Alignment with WorldGBC principles:

Health & Wellbeing Framework: 2.5 Ensure Inclusive Design, 5.1 protect human rights, 5.3 improve quality of life, 1.4 Reduce infection Disease Transmission, 2.5 Ensure Inclusive Design, 5.1 protect human rights, 5.3 improve quality of life, 6.2 Design for Resilience and adaptation action.

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Municipalities and local governments
  • Public works regulatory bodies, specifications and standardization regulatory bodies, H&S specialists, EIA specialists, material engineers, and contractors  
  • Structural engineers
  • Citizens and built environment users

Sub theme: Comfort 

Encourage occupant wellbeing by ensuring thermal, visual, auditory, and olfactory comfort.  Encourage beneficial lifestyle practices which include good nutrition, hydration, and social connectivity.

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 3 & 11, SDG 7.1, SDG9.1, SDG 9.4, SDG 12.4, SDG 13.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 13.1, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG  8.7-8.8, SDG 11.7, SDG 2.1, SDG 11.A, SDG 12.8)

  • Conduct a comfort review data gathering (quantitative and qualitative)

  • Perform comfort analysis

  • Utilise comfort related outcomes and recommendations

  • Plan for thermal comfort

  • Plan for proper lighting and visual comfort

  • Plan for acoustic comfort

  • Integrate urban biophilia

  • Empower community perception and ownership

  • Consider other outdoor environment quality

Alignment with WorldGBC principles:

Net Zero operational carbon

Health & Wellbeing Framework principles

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Local government agencies

  • Municipalities 

  • Civil society representatives

  • Subject matter experts

Sub theme: Pollution 

Approach pollution mitigation and prevention through a comprehensive, integrative, and multi-disciplinary design approach, and elaborate on the preservation of air, water and soil quality to minimise health risks. 

For optimum protection against harm which also encapsulates human wellbeing, the theme provides mitigation strategies for other sources of pollution such as noise and light.

Strategies (SDG Alignment:  SDG 3.9, SDG 11.6, SDG 1.5, SDG 4.7, SDG 11.1, SDG 12.4, SDG 13.3, SDG 1.5, SDG 9.4, SDG 13.1, SDG 6.1 - 6.6, SDG 15.1 - 15.9, SDG 7.1, SDG 9.1, SDG 7.1)

  • Limit and mitigate air pollution
  • Limit and mitigate water pollution
  • Limit and mitigate soil pollution
  • Limit and mitigate noise pollution

Alignment with existing WorldGBC principles:

Health & Wellbeing Framework – 1.1 improve air quality, 1.2 improve water quality , 5.3 improve quality of life, 6.1 Commit to Climate Change mitigation, 6.2 Design for Resilience and adaptation action,2.2 Maintain Exemplary Lighting, 2.3 Maintain Acoustic comfort, 5.3 improve quality of life.

Stakeholders to involve:

  • Each design discipline
  • Scientists and researchers 
  • Client 
  • Community 
  • Cost/Financial controller 
  • Local heritage advisor 
  • Operation and facility manager 
  • Contractor and construction manager 
  • Government and local authorities  

Theme Tools:

  • Estidama Pearl Rating System 2010: Livable Communities LC-12: Safe and Secure Community
  • CASBEE Urban Development 2007: QUD 2.4.4: Crime Prevention Performance (Surveillance and Territoriality)
  • The Northern Territory Government Community Safety Design Guideline
  • IBC and ICC requirements
  • Regulate safety audit procedures and guidelines, and conduct them on a regular basis, especially for road segments that have a past record of accidents
  • Envision Standard 
  • FEAM 
  • UNISDR BBB 
  • WELL Health and Safety Standard. 2021.
  • Estidama Pearl Rating System for Community and Buildings 
  • WorldGBC Health & Well Being Framework 
  • Existing local Standards & Regulations 
  • WELL Building Standard 
  • Fitwel  
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standard 
  • Existing Standards & Regulations 
  • WELL Community Standard 
  • IES/ASHRAE 90.1-2013 
  • IES-ANSI RP-8-14 
  • BS 5489-1:2013 
  • IES RP-33-14 - classifying lighting zones 
  • IES Lighting Handbook 10th Edition 
  • EN 12464-2:2014  
  • EPA. A Citizen's Guide to Bioremediation:  https://www.epa.gov/remedytech/citizens-guide-bioremediation 
  • World Health Organization. 2005.  Air quality guidelines. Global update 2005. Particular matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
  •  World Health Organization. 2017. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. 
  •  WHO Health Organization. 2018. Guidelines on sanitation and health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. 
  •  Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and International Dark Sky Association (IDA). 2011.  Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) User Guide for information on determining the project’s lighting zone.
  • LEED v4 Building Design and Construction 
  • World Green Building Council. 2020. ‘Health and Wellbeing Framework’ 

 


References

Sub theme: Social & Mental Wellbeing 

Astell-Burt, T., Feng, X., & Kolt, G. S. 2013. Does access to neighborhood green space promote a healthy duration of sleep? Novel findings from a cross-sectional study of 259 319 Australians. BMJ Open, 3, e003094.

Beatley, T. 2016. Handbook of biophilic city planning and design. Springer. 

Blackmore, R., Gray, K. M., Boyle, J. A., Fazel, M., Ranasinha, S., Fitzgerald, G., Misso, M., & Gibson-Helm, M. 2020. Systematic review and meta-analysis: The prevalence of mental illness in child and adolescent refugees and asylum seekers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(6), 705–714.

Mykletun, A., Bjerkeset, O., Øverland, S., Prince, M., Dewey, M., & Stewart, R. 2009. Levels of anxiety and depression as predictors of mortality: The HUNT study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 195(2), 118-125.

Mytton, O. T., Townsend, N., Rutter, H., & Foster, C. 2012. Green space and physical activity: An observational study using Health Survey for England data. Health Place, 18(5), 1034-1041.  

Peen, J., Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. T., & Dekker, J. 2010. The current status of urban-rural differences in psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatria Scandinavia, 121(2), 84–93.

Powdthavee, N. 2008. Putting a price tag on friends, relatives, and neighbors: Using surveys of life satisfaction to value social relationships. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(4), 1459-1480.

Rashid, T., & Baddar, M. K. A.-H. 2019. Positive psychotherapy: Clinical and cross-cultural applications of positive psychology. In L. Lambert & N. Pasha-Zaidi (Eds.), Positive psychology in the Middle East/North Africa: Research, policy, and practise (pp. 333–362). Springer. 

Roe, J., & Aspinall, P. 2011. The restorative outcomes of forest school and conventional school in young people with good and poor behavior. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 10(3), 205-212.

Roe, J., Aspinall, P., & Ward Thompson, C. 2017. Coping with stress in deprived urban neighborhoods: What is the role of green space according to life stage? Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1760. 

Schwanen, T., & Wang, D. 2014. Well-being, context, and everyday activities in space and time. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(4), 833–851.

Taylor, M. S., Wheeler, B. W., White, M. P., Economou, T., & Osborne, N. J. 2015. Research note: Urban street tree density and antidepressant prescription rates - A cross-sectional study in London, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 136, 174-179. 

Troy, A., Grove, J. M., & O’Neil-Dunne, J. 2012. The relationship between tree canopy and crime rates across an urban–rural gradient in the greater Baltimore region. Landscape and Urban Planning, 106(3), 262-270.

Umberson, D., & Montez, J. K. 2010. Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(Suppl), S54–S66.

Veronese, G., Pepe, A., Cavazzoni, F., Obaid, H., & Perez, J. 2019. Agency via life satisfaction as a protective factor from cumulative trauma and emotional distress among Bedouin children in Palestine. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1674.

Veronese, G., Pepe, A., Sala, G., Yamien, I., & Vigliaroni, M. 2019. Positive experience, psychological functioning, and hope for the future as factors associated with mental health among young Sub-Saharan internally displaced people (IDP): A quantitative pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health, 48(3), 165–187.

Villeneuve, P. J., Jerrett, M., Su, J. G., Burnett, R. T., Chen, H., Wheeler, A. J., & Goldberg, M. S. 2012. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada. Environmental Research, 115, 51–58.

Walther, L., Amann, J., Flick, U., Tam Ta, T. M., Bajbouj, M., & Hahn, E. 2021. A qualitative study on resilience in adult refugees in Germany. BMC Public Health, 21, 828.

Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. 2009. Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1315-1329.

Zelenski, J. M., Dopko, R. L., & Capaldi, C. A. 2015. Cooperation is in our nature: Nature exposure may promote cooperative and environmentally sustainable behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 24-31

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 by UNDRR outlines seven clear targets and four priority areas for actions that can prevent new disaster risks and reduce existing risks

Sub theme: Safety 

Envision Rating System.(n.d.). American Society of Civil Engineers ( ASCE). https://www.asce.org/envision/ 

UNDDR. (2015). The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. UNDDR

UNISDR. (2017). Build Back Better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. UNISDR 

WELL Health and Safety Standard. 2021. International WELL Building Institute

Sub theme: Comfort 

BCO. 2018. ‘BCO Wellness Matters’. http://www.bco.org.uk/HealthWellbeing/WellnessMatters.aspx 

European Commission. 2019. ‘Health Effects of Noise’. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/health_effects_en.htm  

European Commission. 2020. ‘Environmental Noise’. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/index_en.htm 

GSAS Construction Management Guidelines and assessment. 2016 V2.1-issue 2.0. 

USGBC. (n.d.). Neighborhood Development Plan. https://www.usgbc.org/credits?Version=%22v4%22&Rating+System=%22Neighborhood+Development+plan%22 

Laaidi, K.,et al. 2013. ‘Cold spells and health: prevention and warning’. Public health, Vol. 127(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.02.011 

USGBC. (n.d.). LEED Communities. https://www.usgbc.org/credits?Version=%22v4.1%22&Rating+System=%22Cities+-+Plan+%26+Design%22 

Meng, X.W: & Setoguchi, T. 2010. Development of Urban Design Guidelines with Wind Tunnel Simulations for Downtown Districts in Winter Cities - New Urban Design Approaches for Cold Region Cities. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, Vol 9(2). DOI: 10.3130/jaabe.9.355 

Public space site-specific assessment Guidelines to achieve quality public spaces at neighborhood level, UNHABITAT For Better Urban Future. https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020/07/final_pssa_v.1_reviewed_com pressed.pdf 

USGBC, LEED v4.1 Cities and Communities: Planning and Design, April 10, 2020 

Public space site-specific assessment Guidelines to achieve quality public spaces at neighborhood level, UNHABITAT For Better Urban Future. https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020/07/final_pssa_v.1_reviewed_compressed.pdf 

Renner, R. 2018. Urban Being: Anatomy & Identity of the City. Niggli Verlag. 

Lydon, M., & Garcia, A. (2015). Tactical Urbanism: Short-term Action for Long-term Change. 

UN Habitat. (2012). The Global Public Space Program. www.unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2019/05/global_public_space_toolkit.pdf 

EPA. (n.d.). Heat Island Cooling Strategies. https://www.epa.gov/heatislands/heat-island-cooling-strategies. 

WELL. (n.d.). Thermal Comfort. WELL Communities. https://v2.wellcertified.com/community/en/thermal%20comfort# 

WELL. (n.d.).

Thermal Comfort. WELL Communities.https://v2.wellcertified.com/community/en 

Mikyoung Kim Design. (2009). Chapel Hill Streetscape and Lighting Master Plan, ‘Design Manual: Sustainable-Initiatives’.https://townhall.townofchapelhill.org/agendas/2009/06/15/1/master_plan/pages_from_mykd_chapelhill_masterplan_section11.pdf 

World Green Building Council. 2020. 'Health and Wellbeing framework'. https://worldgbc.org/health-framework 

Sub theme: Pollution

Everything Connects. ‘Noise Pollution’. https://www.everythingconnects.org/noise-pollution.html  

Hurley, et al. 2014. ‘Light at night and breast cancer risk among california teachers’. Epidemiology, Vol 25(5). Doi:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000137 

Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and International Dark Sky Association (IDA). 2011.  Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) User Guide for information on determining the project’s lighting zone. https://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/ 

Legates, at el. 2014. ‘Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect’. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 15(7). Doi:10.1038/nrn3743 

UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2018. ‘Polluting our soils is polluting our future’. http://www.fao.org/fao-stories/article/en/c/1126974/ 

World Health Organization. 2006. ‘Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005’. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf?ua=1 

World Health Organization. 2013. https://www.who.int/health-topics/air-pollution#tab=tab_1 

World Health Organization: Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater -  Volume 1 (2013): https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241546824 

World Health Organization. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). https://www.who.int/health-topics/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash 

Everything Connects. (2013, 20 11). Noise Pollution. https://www.everythingconnects.org/noise-pollution.html 

Hurley, et al. 2014. ‘Light at night and breast cancer risk among california teachers’. Epidemiology, Vol 25(5). Doi:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000137 

Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) and International Dark Sky Association (IDA). 2011.  Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) User Guide for information on determining the project’s lighting zone. https://www.darksky.org/light-pollution/ 
Legates, at el. 2014. ‘Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect’. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 15(7). Doi:10.1038/nrn3743 

UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2018. ‘Polluting our soils is polluting our future’. http://www.fao.org/fao-stories/article/en/c/1126974/ 

World Health Organization. 2006. ‘Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005’ https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf?ua=1 

World Health Organization. 2013. https://www.who.int/health-topics/air-pollution#tab=tab_1 

World Health Organization. (2013). Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater  (Vol. 1). https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241546824 

World Health Organization. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). https://www.who.int/health-topics/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash